Tuesday, June 30, 2020

Joy Luck Club Is Mostly About Reflection - Free Essay Example

The Joy Luck Club is mostly about reflection. As the moms astuteness theyre refinement and agony, their experience and love to their little girls, and the little girls come to learn and esteem their folks, the novel passes on its prosperous messages. Amy Tans novel translates that her story is tied in with finding that piece of desire that empowers a man to survive, be strong, deal with whatever that individual need to do with their life. Amy Tan demonstrates the gathering of people the battle of the mother and little girls when ascending in Chinese and American ways of life. In the book The Joy Luck Club, the author Amy Tan forms the story by center around the dispute between low-setting American and high-setting Chinese culture. The four young ladies and four mothers raise in amazingly separating preparing ways, which advantage them to various depictions. In any case, friendship and accomplishment can at last oblige the genuine rivalry of age hole. The novel set up with an account of the departure of Suyuan Woo, Jing-meis mom, and the foundation of the Joy Luck Club. The people join three other Chinese nonnative families. The four moms have little girls conceived in America, who have a solid misconception to China. They declined to learn Chinese language and guideline; on account of they dont know anything about China. As their moms help them to manage their difficulties in existence with feeling and desire, they at long last know something they fundamentally should think about China. The novel terminations with Jing-meis visit to China, which surveys her of Chinese blood. The colossal subject is the age gap among mother and a young lady, caused by the conflict of Chinese culture and American culture. Additionally, on account of the unique verifiable time of Republican China, the moms expectations, the capacity to their girls are too much solid. It is another inspiration to issue the dispute. Amy Tan propel the topic that despite the fact that there is a cultural conflict between Chinese mother and American little girl, expectation, and love can accommodate the contention using setting and live portra yal. Jing-mei Woo and Suyuan Woo are an American little girl and a Chinese mother. Suyuan was dead four months back, leaving a moving story of a swan quill. Jing-mei has never satisfied Suyuans presumption amid her lifetime, and she is by all accounts not sufficiently unadulterated. Jing-mei doesnt understand the story Suyuan discloses to her since she has never been in China amid the Republican Era. In any case, Suyuan realizes that her girl is a kind individual, who is vastly improved than Waverly for this situation. At the point when her lost sisters are build in China at long last, Jing-mei is requested to assume her moms position in the Joy Luck Club by the three companions of her mom. However, she says that she doesnt have any acquaintance with her mom at all,and she has nothing to state! As Tan expresses, What will I say? What would i be able to educate them concerning my mom? I dont know anything. Regardless she settles on a choice to go to China with Suyuans faith keeping in mind the end goal to support her. From that point forward, Suyuans history is advised to Jingmei, she finds that she at long last thinks about her mom. As Tan expresses, I lay wakeful reasoning about my moms story, acknowledging the amount I have never thought about her, lamenting that my sisters and I had both lost her. From misconception to comprehension, Jing-meis Chinese blood is reviewed by her gathering her sisters for Suyuan toward the finish of the novel, and the hole between them never again exists. Maybe her name is emblematic of her disarray: she is the main little girl with both a Chinese and an American name. As she reviews existence with her mom, June relates that she is constantly told by her mom, Suyuan Woo, that she doesnt attempt and consequently cant make progress A mei Hsu and Rose Hsu are a Chinese mother and an American little girl. A mei is educated in the customary Chinese path amid her youth, while she shows her little girl in a contrary American way. Be that as it may, Rose ends up being much the same as her grandma! As a result of the passing of her younger sibling years back, Rose turns into no longer hopeful yet vulnerable. Amid the separation of Rose and Ted, she makes no assurance herself, even doesnt acknowledge her own particular worth as a confident lady. She is chargeable of enabling her significant other to shape her. He doesnt need her to be an accomplice in family finding until the point that he makes an oversight in his training as a plastic specialist. At that point, he blames that she cant decide: he is disappointed with his creation. So A mei reveals to her stories to Rose and fortifies her to have her individual conviction. She says to Rose, You should have an independent mind, what you should do. On the off chance that somebody lets you know, at that point you are not attempting. In the end, Rose discovers her concealed self-assurance and picks not to give away the house back to Ted since it is now a major piece of her life. The fortitude she gets from her mom makes her totally sure. Waverly Jong and Lindo Jong are an American little girl and a Chinese mother. The war among them proceeded with all through Waverlys youth toward grown-up life, in spite of she is an absolutely insightful and free lady. Without a doubt, Lindo is a mother with stable ability, which truly adjusts Waverly a considerable measure. For example in the novel, She wore a triumphant grin. Most grounded breeze cant be seen, she said. From playing chess to Waverlys life partner, Lindo reliably reproves her. A significant part of the moms and girls discussions appear to be centered around debating, arranging, and meandering between the two different social rationales. Waverly transforms into a chess champion at 9 years of age; Lindo, for the most part, needs them to flaunt. After than Waverly quits playing chess savagely. After numerous years Lindo causes Waverly wed a Chinese man who she doesnt love by any means. She absolutely separates from him, yet they have a girl! At the point when Waverly finds a sweetheart without anyone elses input, Lindo rebukes him routinely, which rouses their last fight. Finally, Lindo exhort her little girl her genuine consideration, and they clean the air. Waverly stands up to her mom after a supper party and understands that her mom has known from the beginning about her association with Rich and has acknowledged him. Waverly and Rich masterminds a trek to China with Lindo best aspirations, showing the affirmation connecting of Chinese and American culture. China perseveres through the severity of Japanese action a great deal while the Republican Era. Ordinary individuals carried on with a totally extreme life. Their homes were extended, and their lives were an insignificant hazard. Chinese armed forces guaranteed to battle inverse to Japanese, however heartbreakingly they were falling toward the start. Suyuans expression in novel discovers that: We knew the Japanese were winning, notwithstanding when the daily papers said they were definitely not. Consistently, consistently, a great many individuals filled the city, swarming the walkways, searching for spots to live And I knew he was instructing me to flee from Kweilin. I realized the end result for officers and their families when the Japanese arrived. The armed forces had strong confirmation, as one reference Chinese powers were set up to battle the Japanese until the very end, and they frequently did. Suyuan then takeoff from Kweilin to Chungking due to the unforgiving war, an adventure so debilitating that she jolts a serious malady in transit and needs to neglect her two twin infants! After Suyuans passing, her three companions in Joy Luck Club resources her off track babies alive in China. Jing-mei goes to China to distinguish them for compromise at the conclusion on the grounds that the trek remembers the Chinese blood in her body and make her, a Chinese American, acknowledge about the energy of China. In view of the despairing knowledge four moms have in China, they all escape to America for an astounding new life. For instance, Suyuan decides on her approach to America, Over yonder, no one will look down on her, since I will influence her to talk just flawless American English. They truly bear a ton of accomplishment for their new motivation, employment, and even their kids. They each face work or dialect intricacy in their underlying foreigner lives. Notwithstanding, they all annihilations the hardships later and have children and girls who lives in America. They trust a considerable measure from them, yet a portion of their kids always mislead them. Strikingly, none of these moms yearns for her little girl to be Chinese after only Chinese routes, for every lady has come to America with the plan of improving an existence in which her family would know the mythical American triumphs (Mistri 1). Jing-mei says, when they meet again in the Joy Luck Club after Suyuans demise, And after that, it jumps out at me. They are panicked. In me, they see their own particular little girls, similarly as uninformed, similarly as ignorant of the considerable number of realities and expectations they have conveyed to America. The moms require their little girls to be individuals with both Chinese and American identity, however they all tumble. The little girls just have American mind, they even flotsam and jetsam to acknowledge Chinese theory and dialect. In reality, the objective is trying to perceive, and it causes the age division and social complexities. Amy Tan composes The Joy Luck Club with the emphasis on setting and portrayal about a genuine conflict between Chinese culture and American culture, which causes numerous contentions between the age hole. The little girls are all at a misfortune on managing either settler character or passionate issues, however the moms help them to conquer the issues with expectation, influence and love. I learnt a ton in the wake of perusing this magnificent novel. Mother and girl ought to see each other all together not to cause an age hole. Whats more, a couple should regard each other, in light of the fact that they might be mates through entire life. In addition, every one of us should know the value of ourselves, on the grounds that everybody is the just a single in this world. I need my paper to pass on being certain to indicate love and would like to each other, which I believe is a standout amongst the most essential characters in the life to improve a world. The American-conceived little girls never get a handle on to these characteristics, and as the book appears, they turned out to be totally not quite the same as their absolutely Chinese guardians. They never pick up a feeling of genuine regard for their seniors, or for their Chinese foundation, and at last are totally not quite the same as what their folks arranged them to be. All in all, by the stories and data given by every person in The Joy Luck Club, it is obvious to me exactly how extraordinary a Chinese-American individual is from their folks or more established relatives. I find that the captivating trials and encounters that these Chinese moms experienced are a demonstration of their persevering nature, and steady dedication to their older folks. Their little girls, then again, demonstrate that unadulterated Chinese blood can be changed totally through only one age. They have turned out to be American in their discourse, as well as in their contemplations, activities and ways of life. This novel has not just given extraordinary knowledge into the Chinese mindset and living, however it has demonstrated the immense complexity that happens from age to age, in the passing on of thoughts and customs.

Saturday, May 30, 2020

Critique of an Article About the Muslim Community/Terrorism - 1100 Words

Critique of an Article About the Muslim Community and Terrorism (Essay Sample) Content: Critique EssayNameInstitutional AffiliationCritique EssayIntroductionIn the article, the word "Allah Akbar" is not considered a phrase that causes fear among all of those who hear it. In fact, the author tries to explain how the modern mentality has changed the way the majority of US citizens react to the Arabic language. According to Clark (2016) "it should actually be spoken in public more often, not less, to avoid misunderstandings" (64). Moreover, the author claims that Americans have been misinterpreting Arabic to such an extent that Arabs themselves fear speaking their own language, as they can be suspected to be terrorists. Primarily, she bases her arguments on her classroom experience while teaching Saudi Arabian students. Actually, she says that Americans learn Arabic words from the media and associate them with terrorism. On the contrary, Clark (2016) states that these words have a positive meaning and are part of the everyday life in the Arabic world. Over all, the article shows the mistreatment Arabian nationals face while speaking their language in front of the foreigners.SummaryIn this article, the author bases her argument on the fact that many people have been associating Arabic with terrorism, and anybody who heard one speaking this language is considered a terrorist. On the other hand, Arabic is just a language and is used in the same contexts as English. Thus, it is unfortunate that any person heard using Arabic in public automatically becomes a suspect.On the contrary, Clark (2016) claims that the language should be looked at differently. The author contradicts herself when she says that people should stop associating Arabic words with something unlawful; yet, extremists are the ones who have made the language widely known.EvaluationTo begin with, the authorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s claims do not seem to be backed by sufficient evidence, as she generally relies on her experience alone. Moreover, Clark (2016) does not consider the feelings of other people that might have a different perspective on the issue. In fact, this is evident because she begins by stating that it is through her students that she has learnt some Arabic words and their meanings. Therefore, the author has concluded that the language is not as harsh as people perceive it when they hear such words via the media.For example, when one of her students describes himself as a jihadi, it raises eyebrows because the term is associated with extremism. In this case, the author states that she could not have prevented the student from describing themselves in this manner. Thus, it shows that she is biased as well. For instance, there is still a part of her that is not ready to fully accept that a "jihadi" is actually a positive word. When she states, "They pray daily in the back of our classroom, quietly murmuring, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Allah Akbarà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬" (Clark, 2016, n.p.). Currently, she associates this expression with quiet contemplation and peaceful class breaks (a moment to unwind). Overall, such comments show that her statements are based on personal experience alone.Secondly, the author does not provide any statistics to support her arguments. She has only used the general language without any qualitative or quantitative data as the evidence. For example, she begins by stating that she has been a teacher for two years and does not provide any information on the average number of students that have been in her class during this time. When she states, "I overheard the students of one group repeatedly saying à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Hamas, Hamasà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . In this case, Clark (2016) does not tell the exact number of students in the group. Thus, the lack of evidence raises a lot of questions among the readers. Some of the questions one of them may ask themselves include how many students in the group use the word "Hamas" openly as the author claims. Therefore, there is not even a single statistic that is provided to support the claims by the author. Moreover, when she gives the example, "my students have also taught me the everyday meanings of other words and expressions that many Americans have come to associate with Islamic extremism," she does not give the average statistics to show the percentage of Americans that associate Arabic words with extremism.Lastly, the author uses oversimplifications and makes certain mistakes. For instance, she oversimplifies statements to make them look not that harsh while to other Americans those terms can be very harsh. For example, she states that "I can only imagine how a suspicious AmericanÂmight misinterpret an innocent discussion among my students about grammar" this statement is used to describe the word "Al-Qaedaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , which to many American is a terrorists group that can evoke their emotions. On the other hand, she uses general statements that do not possess any real value and are not convincing enough.ResponseIn the article, the author presents a very strong argument on the positivity of the Arabic language and the way many Americans misinterpret the language. She vividly states that the language is like any other and that people connect it with terrorism. This is because most of the words they have heard come from the media and they are associated with ext...

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

restrict financial liability to a specific sum - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2808 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Essay any type Did you like this example? Explain the meaning and significance of the provision in Section 11 Sub-section 4 that deals with a contract term seeking to restrict financial liability to a specific sum. How useful are the guidelines for applying the reasonableness test in Schedule 2? (4) Where by reference to a contract term or notice a person seeks to restrict liability to a specified sum of money, and the question arises (under this or any other Act) whether the term or notice satisfies the requirement of reasonableness, regard shall be had in particular (but without prejudice to subsection (2) above in the case of contract terms) to- (a) the resources which he could expect to be available to him for the purpose of meeting the liability should it arise; and (b)how far it was open to him to cover himself by insurance. As has been indicated, clauses excluding or restricting liability will frequently be ineffective under the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 unless they satisfy the req uirement of reasonableness. It is for the party seeking to rely upon the exemption clause to establish that it is reasonable (section 11(5)) and the assessment is made against the time frame of the making of the contract. Under section 11(1) the term must have been a fair and reasonable one to have included in the contract having regard to all the circumstances which were or ought reasonably have been known to, or in the contemplation of the parties when the contract was made. The actual breach is not relevant to the reasonableness of an exemption clause, merely potential breaches within the reasonable contemplation of the parties when they contracted[5]. There are guidelines in schedule 2. For historical reasons, they are only relevant by legislative prescription when the requirement of reasonableness is applied by sections 6 or 7, but they are a list of factors which the courts have recognised to be generally factually relevant to the requirement of reasonableness, under whi chever section it is applied[6]. There is also further specific guidance as to the treatment of clauses which limit liability in section 11(4). In relation to such clauses, regard is to be had to the resources available to the proferens to meet potential liability and how far it was open to that party to obtain insurance cover. In general, the courts have indicated the relevance of considering the insurance situation eg whether the exemption clause placed the risk of some problem with performance on the person best able to insure and whether the allocation of the need to insure was reflected in the contract price[7]. Also, in Smith v Bush (1990 p.858), Lord Griffiths set out a list of four factors he regarded as generally relevant to the requirement of reasonableness the relative bargaining power of the parties; availability of an alternative source of supply of the contract performance; the nature of the task being undertaken by the proferens (one with a high degree of risk mor e readily justifying an exemption clause); the practical consequences of the decision on reasonableness, having regard to the sums of money potentially at stake; the ability of the parties to bear the losses involved and the availability of insurance to meet such losses. However, despite these statements as to generally relevant factors, the limited nature of the role of the appellant court in this context should be noted. Recognising that the type of weighing of factors which is required in applying the requirement of reasonableness means that there is scope for a legitimate difference of opinion as to what the answer should be, the House of Lords has indicated that the appellate court should treat the original decision with the utmost respect and refrain from interference with it unless satisfied it proceeded upon some erroneous principle or was plainly and obviously wrong (George Mitchell Ltd. v. Finney Lock Seeds Ltd. (1983 ), Lord Bridge at 816). Decisions on the requirement of reasonableness provide only limited guidance. The first of the specific cases to consider here is The Salvage Assn v. CAP Financial Services Ltd. (1995) which was concerned with two contracts for the design, development and supply of computer accounting software for the plaintiff marine surveying company. After two years the system was not complete and had numerous problems. The plaintiff terminated the second contract (the first being over) and sued the defendant for the contract price (GBP 300,000) and wasted expenditure (GBP 500,000). Inter alia, and the relevant point to be considered here, the defendants sought to rely upon clauses limiting their liability to GBP 25,000 under each contract. Under sections 2(2) and 3 of the 1977 Act, the question arose as to whether the limitation clauses satisfied the requirement of reasonableness. The judge[8] took the view that (at 676) Generally speaking where a party well able to look after itself enters into a commercial contract and, with full knowledge of all relevant circumstances willingly accepts the terms of the transaction, I think it is very likely that those terms will be held to be fair and reasonable. In the particular case, the parties were viewed as being of equal bargaining power and the contract terms as considered and negotiated over a period of time. Had matters rested there the judge would have accepted that the defendants had established the reasonableness of the limitation clauses. However, there were additional factors to consider. In particular, the defendants had not justified the level of the limitation it bore no relationship to the value of the contract, to the defendants turnover, to the level of the defendants insurance cover, or to the financial risk to the plaintiff. Even more particularly, the GBP 25,000 limit was one which the defendants themselves regarded as inappropriate by the time the contracts with the plaintiffs were made (the new limit decided on was GBP 1,000,000 ). The judge seems to have viewed this last factor as particularly damning of the defendants claim that their limitation clause was reasonable, and that might seem to be self evident. However, the test of reasonableness in s11 must be borne in mind it refers to the circumstances which were, or ought reasonably to have been, known to or in the contemplation of the parties when the contract was made (emphasis added). The defendants views as to the appropriate level of limitation were obviously known to themselves but it is difficult to see how they could have been within the reasonable contemplation of the plaintiffs. Similarly, the judge considered the actual levels of the defendants insurance cover (GBP 5,000,000 with an excess of GBP 500,000) and again that would seem to be outside the plaintiffs reasonable contemplation. In Flamar Interocean Ltd. v. Denmac Ltd. (1990), Potter J. made it clear that unless parties have discussed their actual insurance positions before contracting, section 11(1) only allows for consideration of the insurance that was available at the time of contracting. In the absence of such discussions, it is only the possible insurance arrangements that can have been within the reasonable contemplation of the parties (ie both of them) at the time the contract was made. In other words much of what was considered in The Salvage Assn. case in relation to reasonableness was not relevant under the test stated in section 11(1). However, that is not to say that the decision is not justifiable. As has been indicated, under section 11(5) the burden lay on the defendants to establish the reasonableness of their clause and, as was pointed out, they had done nothing to show that the limitation to GBP 25,000 was anything other than arbitrary. In addition, whilst the specifics of the defendants own view of the limit and its actual insurance position were not relevant, their position more generally (eg size of the company) and the availability of insuran ce to them clearly were, and might be seen as indicating that the limit was not reasonable. The general point to be made is that the basis of the level of limitation in a clause restricting liability will have to be justifiable if the clause is to be found to be reasonable. The second case specifically to be considered here is St Albans City and District Council v. International Computers Ltd. (1995). That case arose because of the Councils decision to install its own computer with appropriate software to deal with the implementation of the Community Charge and with the Councils finances in general. After taking expert advice on tenders, the Council contracted with the defendants, ICL. However, the program proved to be defective and it produced an overstatement, by about 3,000, of the population figure for the Councils area and that led the council to claim a loss of something in excess of GBP 1.3m. The question was whether this was recoverable from ICL. Scott Baker J found a cle ar breach by ICL of an express term that ICL would provide software which was reasonably fit for the Councils purpose of maintaining and retrieving a reliable register of the local community. ICL claimed to rely on clause 9(c) of their contract to limit their liability to GBP 100,000. Scott Baker J found that clause was rendered ineffective by the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 as ICL could not establish that it satisfied the requirement of reasonableness which was applied under section 3, inter alia. It is that conclusion which must be considered here. On appeal (St Albans City and District Council v. International Computers Ltd (1996)), the Court of Appeal reduced the damages payable by the defendants for reasons unconnected with the limitation clause. In relation to the application of the reasonableness test, there was reference to the limited intervention approach to be taken to appeals and the Court left that part of the decision untouched. Nourse L.J. did add that he believ ed he would have given the same answer himself (at 492)). One point which should be emphasised is that ICL had mistakenly used an earlier version of their standard terms in contracting and the version current at the time of the contract with the Council limited liability to GBP 125,000, rather than GBP 100,000. This, in itself, would seem to have made it very difficult for ICL to argue that the clause was a fair and reasonable one to have included in the contract as the higher limit was part of the standard terms ICL were then using, it could have been within the parties reasonable contemplation. However, whilst that error on ICLs part must not be lost sight of, what is of more interest is the judges general approach to the reasonableness test. He concluded that there were four determining factors showing that the clause was unreasonable. Firstly, he referred to the parties unequal bargaining power. However, whilst the Council might not have been able to contract without the cla use, it was in a very different situation to that of the average consumer. It had legal advisers amongst its employees, for example. Secondly, Scott Baker J emphasised that the defendants had not justified the figure of GBP 100,000 which he regarded as small, both in relation to the potential risk and the absolute loss. Of course, against the background of their use of the wrong version of their standard terms, justifying the precise sum would have been virtually impossible for ICL, but, as has already been indicated, it would seem that in general the level of a limitation will have to be justifiable. The third point made by Scott Baker J was that ICL were well covered by insurance (an aggregate of GBP 50m worldwide) and finally, he looked at the practical consequences of the clause being effective or ineffective. He thought it more appropriate for the loss to be borne by a well insured large company than by the community charge payers of St. Albans. Again the point made above as to consideration of the parties actual insurance position should be remembered, but the type of cover available could be within the parties reasonable contemplation In addition, Scott Baker J summarised the factors which pointed to a finding that the clause was reasonable. They were that bodies such as computer companies and local authorities should be free to make their own bargain, that the companies contracted with their eyes open, that limitations of this kind are commonplace in the computer industry and that [the software package] was an area of developing technology. As has been indicated, he considered those latter factors to be outweighed by those indicating the unreasonableness of the clause and, of course, the burden of proof was on ICL to establish the reasonableness of the clause. That weighing exercise should be considered further. In deciding that the clause was unreasonable the judge placed great emphasis on the size of the company and its insurance. However, it is u sual to relate the question of insurance cover to the contract price. Was it clear that, given the risks involved in developing software, that increased liability would not have involved increased insurance costs for ICL and an increased contract price? The need to inquire into such a relationship should be emphasised. Of course, even if a defendant would have had to increase insurance cover, and costs, to increase the limit on their liability, that is not necessarily determinative of the question of reasonableness. In Smith v. Bush, (1990), the fact that surveyors would have had to increase their insurance, and charge their customers more if a disclaimer of liability was ineffective did not render the disclaimer reasonable. The practical consequences of the disclaimer being effective were such that it was regarded as unreasonable and in the St Albans case Scott Baker J emphasised the practical consequences of the limitation clause being effective and loss falling on the local popul ation rather than on an international computer company. However, the appropriateness of an analogy between the situation of the consumer in Smith v. Bush and the Council in the instant case must be questioned. In Smith v. Bush Lord Griffiths noted that the surveyors were insured and said (at 858) Bearing the loss will be unlikely to cause significant hardship if it has to be borne by the surveyor but it is on the other hand quite possible that it will be a financial catastrophe for the purchaser who may be left with a valueless house and no money to buy another. The possibility of financial disaster for the individual in Smith v. Bush seems to be very different to the situation of the Council in the St Albans case even when it is emphasised that the burden would eventually fall on the individuals within the Councils area. In the consumer context, exemptions are unlikely to satisfy the requirement of reasonableness and may also be subject to the test of fairness under the 19 94 Regulations[9]. However, in the commercial context, it can be contended that more account needs to be taken of the special nature of software problems. In Smith v. Bush Lord Griffiths indicated that a high degree of risk in the contract performance might indicate the reasonableness of an exemption. This should be considered in the light of the difficulties in eliminating bugs from software which has been explained by analogy with chaos theory. It has been said (Lloyd and Simpson ( 1994) at 79-80) It is impossible to test even the simplest program in an exhaustive fashion. This is because of the myriad possibilities for interaction (whether desired or not) between the various elements of the program [Chaos theory] suggests that every event influences every other event; that the beating of a butterflys wings has an impact upon the development of a hurricane The theorys hypothesis is reality in a software context. Although software can and should be tested, it has to be accepte d that every piece of software will contain errors which may not materialise until a particular and perhaps unrepeatable set of circumstances occurs. Of course, these difficulties may impact upon the content of the contractual performance in itself (eg affecting what will be required for goods to be of satisfactory quality under section 14(2) of the Sale of Goods Act 1979) (see Rowland and Macdonald (1997)), but nevertheless they should be acknowledged in relation to the question of the reasonableness of at least some exemptions. In addition, whilst a high level of insurance may be available to some suppliers, and against that background a limitation may appear to be low, before any such conclusion is reached consideration should be given to another special feature of a breach involving a software bug. The point has been made by Lloyd (1997, at 455) if one copy of a software product exhibits defects it may be extremely likely that all products will be so tainted. With manufact ured products generally, most defects are introduced at the production stage and affect only a portion of the products in question. A finding that one copy of a software package is [not of satisfactory quality] might, by way of contrast, leave its producer liable to every purchaser. This should be relevant when levels of insurance cover are considered in addressing the reasonableness of a limitation clause. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "restrict financial liability to a specific sum" essay for you Create order

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Brave New World By Aldous Huxley - 1519 Words

1. Brave New World by Aldous Huxley †¢ Average rating on goodreads.com: 3.94/5 †¢ Synopsis: This story takes place in London, England, the United States and Mexico in the year 2540. In this so-called â€Å"Utopia†, the state has all control, it is a complete dictatorship. Babies are not born, they are artificially created and everyone is belonging to one of five distinct classes; Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Epsilon. The young are brainwashed into becoming happy with their predetermined role in society. People are psychologically conditioned in their sleep and told not to love, but rather to have sex for fun. Also, a drug called Soma is used to make people feel no pain and it has no repercussions. This book does not exactly follow a solid plot however, later on in the novel characters from the New World and Savage reservations are introduced. The differences in ways of life between the New World and the remaining Savage Reservations are showcased. †¢ Theme: One main theme is the possible dangerous of a state controlled society. Another is the battle between being happy and recognizing the truth. †¢ Awards and Achievements: ï‚ « American Academy of Arts and Letters Award of Merit – 1959 †¢ Reviews: o â€Å"Brave New World is an enduring masterpiece of classic science fiction, a bleak future vision as concerning today as it must have been over 80 years ago.† – Antony Jones, SFBook Reviews †¢ Personal Reflection: This is a science fiction novel and I am not a fan of science fiction. ThisShow MoreRelatedA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley668 Words   |  3 PagesIn Brave New World, there are similarities that have a deeper meaning that we can understand. There are personal effects in Aldous Huxley life that contribute to what he has written in the book. Aldous Huxley throughout his life have seen, done, and events have happened to him, just like all of us, but he has expressed it in his book. So when Aldous wrote the he had so many ideas. I have read the book; it’s notRead MoreBrave New World by Aldous Huxley811 Words   |  3 Pages Brave New World is based around characters who gave up the right of freedom for happiness; characters who ignored the truth so that they could live in a utopian civilization. The deceiving happiness was a constant reminder throughout the book. Almost every character in Brave New World did whatever they could to avoid facing the truth about their own situations. In this society, happiness is not compatible with the truth because the World State believes that happiness was at the expense of theRead MoreBrave New World By Aldous Huxley1525 Words   |  7 PagesA Brave New Feminist The novel Brave New World written by Aldous Huxley in 1932 is known for its social satire, utopian values, and unusual standpoints on stereotypical gender roles. In this time where futuristic technology has completely taken over, and men and women are given the same opportunities for everything, â€Å"the genders appear equal within the social order; both men and women work at the same jobs, have equal choice in sexual partners, and participate in the same leisure pursuits† (MarchRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley664 Words   |  3 Pagesfor the fact being in the future and in the past time has changed and many differences were made. In his Dystopian Society Huxley portrays masses of niches where the government produces clones for specific reasons. Huxley decides throughout Brave New World that cloning humans is unethical. He then becomes in contact with the society’s most powerful Alphas and Betas clones. Huxley suggest in BNW that lower class groups in clo ning humans to act like servants to terrorize them into working hard conditionsRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley1189 Words   |  5 Pages In the world of sex, drugs, and baby cloning you are going to be in many situations where you feel like the world we live in should be different. In the story Brave New World, they had sex with multiple partners along with a very bad use of drugs. It is weird that Aldous Huxley wrote this book in 1931 about the world he was living in during that time and how it is similar to the world we live in today. Nowadays, drugs are still being used and people are still engaging in sexual encounters withRead MoreBrave New World By Aldous Huxley968 Words   |  4 PagesAldous Huxley’s utopia in Brave New World foreshadowed and illuminated the complications within modern day society. Upon its release, the narrative became widely banned all over the United States due to the unorthodox thoughts and actions of multiple characters in it. Early readers, as well as modern day audiences, feared and rejected the ideals that Huxley incorporated into his perfect society; however, our society today is heading towards the dark paths the older generations desired to avoid. Read MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley895 Words   |  4 Pagesthe novel Brave New World, Aldous Huxley tells of a society where everyone is the same but, compared to t oday’s society, everything is different. Huxley tells of a world where everything that happens or takes place is because of one’s own desire and nothing more. The hero in the novel, a â€Å"savage† named John, is Huxley’s main focal point. It is through his eyes and mind that the reader sees what’s going on. Now when I read this novel, I began to think, â€Å"Could this perfect, conformed world actuallyRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley1684 Words   |  7 Pagesimperfect world and is usually only a hopeful dream. These types of worlds can greatly be described in detail through the world of science fiction. Aldous Huxley was an English writer who lived during a time when war and chaos were engulfing the world. His works reflect his view and thoughts on a dystopia, which is a false utopia, and describes what could occur in possible governments of the world. The ability to understand and dive into the thoughts of the author is what make s world literatureRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley614 Words   |  2 Pagesthem truly happy. What if someone were to tell you that what you thought was true happiness was all an illusion. In a Brave New World by Aldous Huxley people in the world state are conditioned and drugged up by soma to not experience true happiness. In a world that is perfect, human beings do not have to depend on drugs to keep our world in balance. In a Brave New World by Aldous Huxley there is always a perfect drug called soma that keeps everyone happy, which they have based their society on. ThisRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley948 Words   |  4 PagesWelcome to a world were â€Å"Brave† is not just a word; It has a true meaning. This is a story were everything as you know it, doesn’t seem to be right and will completely change your way of thinking. When this story was written, life was very harsh for many people†¦.Mostly for the author who wrote â€Å"Brave New World† During this time (1930s) they didn’t have much sexual content Living The Future Of The Past In The Present†¦.. In the air; But Aldous made a future full of sex for them and we are the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Animal Testing And The Scientific Field - 1305 Words

The world has become very advanced through scientific discoveries in the past. As time continues to progress, so does the world s knowledge. New discoveries are made every day that help with diseases and technology. During the developments and discoveries in the scientific field, people find that the richest discoveries in health or medicine generally depend on animal testing. According to Animal Testing in the History of Anesthesia: Now and Then, Some Stories, Some Facts, the writer says, â€Å"There are many interesting anecdotes, [†¦] about how dogs have been loved, named and tested by many anesthesiologists, [†¦]. However, the contribution of experiments on animals such as rabbit, monkey, mice, guinea pigs etc., also played a significant role in the evolution of both general and regional anesthesia.† (149). This means the experts use many kinds of domestic animals for animal testing, like dogs and cats, in addition to wild animals, like monkeys and mice. Therefor e, if people talk about laboratories, they should remember animal experiments. According to people who dislike the idea of doing testing on animals, those animals have the right to live; the other opinion supports the idea of animal testing, claiming it is an important part of research that leads to medical advancement that produces results and solutions for diseases prevalent in every time and place. Each year, huge numbers of animals are sacrificed for science, and all of these animals, regardless of their species,Show MoreRelatedThe Ethics Of Animal Experimentation927 Words   |  4 PagesFor centuries, the ethics of animal experimentation in the biomedical field have been questioned. The primary concern is whether the animals used in research outweigh the pain the animals endure. Animal rights activists will argue that there are new alternatives, which are more accurate than animal testing. The success of animal trials has continued the use by scientists within the medical fiel d. Additionally, testing on animals eliminate harm to humans. The first Animal Cruelty Act was created inRead MoreAnimal Testing : Is It Ethical?994 Words   |  4 PagesAnimal Testing, is it Ethical? For centuries, the ethics of animal experimentation in the biomedical field have been questioned. Do the benefits of animals used in research outweigh the pain the animals endure? Animal rights activists will argue there are new alternatives that there are more accurate than animal testing. The success of trials on animals, has led to the continued use by scientists within the medical field. Additionally, testing on animals instead of humans puts humans out of harmsRead MoreAnimal Testing Should Not Be Banned1278 Words   |  6 PagesAnimal testing or animal experimentation is the use of non-human species such as animals, in experiments to test the affect of controlled variables on the subjects behaviour or physical appearance. The use of animal testing in science is a controversial issue that has divided the public for many centuries; between immense passion and emotion from those opposing the practice, and those that preach its integral part in the advancement of science. The div ide in the topic is between the scientific communityRead More History and Pros of Animal Testing Essay1233 Words   |  5 PagesHistory and Pros of Animal Testing Abstract: Animal research refers to the use of non-human animals for testing or experimenting on. The first recorded use of animals for testing started with the Greeks in the third and fourth century BC. The use of animals for testing is usually in the basic fields of; biomedical research, security, evaluation and education of a product. It is estimated that almost 50 million—100 million animals are tested on and killed annually, but this is usually done toRead MoreAnimal Models And Clinical Trials1158 Words   |  5 Pages(WY Mak et. Al, 2014) discusses the concerns of the fact that many drugs that are successful in animal trials are not successful in clinical trials, most specifically, drugs used in cancer treatments. Animal models have been an important factor in the testing of a new drug before it is used in clinical trials, but many drugs that are approved in animal models are not successful in human models. It has been shown that 85% of early clinical trials for novel drugs are n ot successful and from the remainingRead MoreThe Use Of Scientific Testing On Animals1503 Words   |  7 Pagesused animals as means of learning more about the world. The first known vivisection was done by a Greek philosopher, Alcmaeon, in 450 B. C. E (â€Å"Animal Testing† NP). Since then, animals have had invasives tests performed on them, been killed, and been experimented on in the name of science or for profit. Some experiments are in order to demonstrate already known facts to students, others are to further medical knowledge, and some are to test drugs and cosmetics (â€Å"Animal Testing† NP). Scientific testingRead MoreEthical And Scientific Considerations Regarding Animal Testing And Research759 Words   |  4 PagesEthical and Scientific Considerations Regarding Animal Testing and Research. The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, which emphasized reduction, refinement, and replacement of animal use, principles, many scientists referred to the thre e R’s. These principles encouraged researchers to work to cut down the figure of animals utilized in experiments to the minimum considered necessary, refine or limit the pain and distress to which animals are exposed, and replace the use of animals with non-animalRead MoreAnimal Experimentation Successes And Clinical Research Failures982 Words   |  4 PagesAn examination of the conditions endured by research animals beforehand can also be attributed to a source of conclusion inaccuracy between animal experimentation successes and clinical research failures. Stress, commonly experienced by animal subjects in a lab setting, is a major factor known for contaminating the accuracy and reliability of biomedical research results. Stress causes a chain reaction of heightened readings, such as increased heart rates, pulses, muscular actions, and hormonal balancesRead MoreHuman Testing On Human Beings1727 Words   |  7 Pages Since the beginning of time in the medical field, toxicology has always been a profound question. What is toxic? And what not toxic. This question has pondered medical professionals for years. The toxicity of anything varies greatly, what can and is toxic to one person may not be toxic to another, and so on and so forth, this also includes as to what dosage of certain medicines and chemicals fall into the toxic category as well. What one person can inquest safely might kill another person? Read MoreScientific Advances in Society and Conflict Essay990 Words   |  4 PagesScientific Advances in Society and Conflict In order to respond to the above statement fully, I have chosen three different examples of scientific advances that have had a major effect on society in the recent years. These are Animal Experimentation, Cloning and Cryogenics. I will be giving a brief definition of each term, and then describing the conflicts they cause, highlighting the arguments for and against. Animal experimentation has caused many a conflict

Should Abortion Be Legal - 1386 Words

The struggle between knowing what is right and wrong when speaking about abortion is one that has been controversial for quite a long time. What gives someone the right to say if abortion should legal, while telling the other person there doing the wrong thing with their lives. The personal choice is being taken away from people and is largely an argument based on factors such as a person’s social wellbeing and religious background (BOLCE, L). Along with this â€Å"Factors other than social class and background and religiosity have been identified to be important in the structuring of opinion towards abortion, including political ideology, sex role orientation, and personal morality.† (BOLCE ,L) . Abortion is an important sociological issue†¦show more content†¦With many of conferences and marches held all around the world every day, yet there has been no change for the better within society. When researching how these people interact we can gain a greater unde rstanding on how society needs to grow and change to work better together, with less confrontation. Prior research shows that race does have a significant impact on the opinion towards legal abortion. Studies done on African Americans portrayed by â€Å"Combs and Welch, found blacks to be significantly less supportive of abortion than whites† (BOLCE, L), this was not only a case of race, but the different demographic factors applied as well. Those located within a city rather than a rural area would also have a different overall outlook at different societal issues. Living in a small community creates little room for diversity and a change in thoughts, while being located within a city allows for several stances towards sociological issues such as abortion. Such findings show that â€Å"contemporary societies are being shaped by class and cultural conflicts† ( Tamney, J). More race diversity happens within larger populated areas showing greater teachings on others lif e-styles need to be explored more within school systems. Allowing for children to grow up having a mindset that cultural diversity and different opinions are reasonable for creating a structural society with less conflict (Banks, 1987). There should be no judgement towards anyone for havingShow MoreRelatedAbortion Should Not Be Legal1647 Words   |  7 PagesOne of the most highly debated topics is abortion and whether or not it should be legal. People who oppose abortion, meaning they are pro-life claim that abortion should be completely illegal with no aspects of it whatsoever; it can be a murder for the people standing against it. The other side of the argument, meaning people who are pro-choice, defend it by believing it to be a right been given to the women. They also claim even if abortion was to be illegal, it would still be practiced. EveryRead MoreAbortion Should Not Be Legal920 Words   |  4 Pagesworld has struggled with for ages and one thing that people are advocating around the world for is abortion. Abortion is either a procedure or pill that stops a fetus s heart. Abortion should not be legal because life beings at creation, abortions are a direct violation of the 14th amendment, and thousands o f people would love to adopt a child: handicapped or otherwise. Abortion should not be legal because life begins at creation. What is creation? Some people say conception, but it actually isRead MoreAbortion Should Not Be Legal Essay1596 Words   |  7 Pages Abortions have been performed on women for thousands of years. Abortion is the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy. Most often it is performed during the first 20 weeks of being pregnant. The controversy over whether or not abortion should be legal continues to divide Americans till this day. An important landmark case was the Roe v. Wade case, where the Court argued that the zone of privacy was broad enough to encompass a woman s decision whether or not to terminateRead MoreShould Abortion Be Legal?1135 Words   |  5 PagesKelsi Hodgkin Composition 1 Professor Chipps 19 October 2015 Should Abortion Be Legal A common debate in the world today involves abortion, the deliberate end of human pregnancy, and whether or not it should be legalized. â€Å"Every year in the world there are an estimated 40-50 million abortions. This corresponds to approximately 125,000 abortions per day† (â€Å"Abortions Worldwide this Year†). On one side of the argument, people are not disturbed by this grotesque number, and on theRead MoreShould Abortion Be Legal?963 Words   |  4 PagesLegal or Illegal? Which would you prefer? Not many are willing to discuss such a gut wrenching topic, but this needs to be addressed. It is a very controversial topic with having to do with women rights and activists. Since there are two sides to every argument, there is one side such as to make abortion legal and the opposing side to keep abortions illegal. In my opinion making abortion illegal can regulate the amount of women who do get pregnant. I believe that making abortions legal will let womenRead MoreShould Abortion Be Legal?867 Words   |  4 PagesABORTION Abortion is a deliberate termination of a human pregnancy, most often performed the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. There are series of legal, moral and ethical issues which may arise about abortion. Most arguments about abortion are often focused on political insinuations and the legal aspect of such actions. Some frequently asked questions’ regarding the issue is if the practice should be outlawed and regarded as murder or should women have the right to practice it. For example, prior toRead MoreShould Abortion Be Legal?1320 Words   |  6 PagesAbortion, as you all may know, is a really popular topic. There have long been many debates between the two groups, pro-life and pro-choice. People who are pro-life believe that part of the government’s job is to protect all forms of human life. Those who are pro-choice believe that every individual should have control over their own reproductive systems. Pro-life supporters strongly believe that even an undeveloped fetus has li fe; it is still growing and it needs to be protected. And this soundsRead MoreShould Abortion Be Legal?1217 Words   |  5 PagesNovember 2015 Should Abortion be Legal Among all the issues that have been fought for or against in the United States, abortion may be one of the most popular issues that Americans are passionate about. Abortion is defined as the removal of the embryo or fetus from the uterus in order to end a pregnancy. Thousands of abortions take place every single day, and yet public opinion remains at a standstill as to whether or not abortion is ethical. Everyone holds different opinions on abortion. The proponentsRead MoreShould Abortions Be Legal?939 Words   |  4 PagesShould abortions be legal? Abortions have been a big issue since the Roe v Wade case. There have been a lot of disagreements between the Pro-life supporters and the pro-choice supporters. Pro-life supporters feel like abortions deter murder, while pro-choice supporters believe that the women should be able to make their own decisions. I am a part of the pro-life supporters because I feel like abortions are wrong for several of reasons. Why should women get an abor tion if there are other choices forRead MoreShould Abortion Be Legal? Essay1089 Words   |  5 PagesWhen the word abortion is heard, it is always associated with many negative things such as murder and inhumanity. However not legalizing abortion creates a huge problem for women around the world. Having a child takes consideration, planning and preparation and if pregnancy happens without any of this, why bother to have it at all? The reasons why abortion should be legal is that it supports the fundamental human rights for women by giving them a choice, it reduces crime by reducing the number of

Hela Cells free essay sample

She went to Johns Hopkins hospital to have the tumor looked at; they took a sample and sent her home. A few weeks later, when Dr. Lawrence Wharton Jr. was prepping Henrietta for treatment he took two samples from her one from the tumor and one from her healthy cervix. He never asked Henrietta if he could take these samples from her. Dr. Wharton Jr. took the samples down to Dr. Gey’s lab; he got excited but thought the cells would just die like all the rest. The women in the lab cut the cancer cells, placed them in test tubes, and placed them in the incubator. The next morning the women noticed that there was growth in the test tubes, Henrietta’s cells were growing at a great speed, they doubled over night. That day she cut the cell in half and those two halves grew overnight. Every 24 hours the cells where growing like crabgrass. We will write a custom essay sample on Hela Cells or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It seemed like her cancer cells where unstoppable, as long as they had food and warmth. Because of their adaption to growth in tissue cultures plates, HeLa cells are difficult to grow. In 1952, researchers injected HeLa cells into everything, from mumps to herpes. That year was the worst year of the polio epidemic they used Hela cells to test the vaccine that protected millions. Hela cells made it possible to grow the virus, so they could make a vaccine to fight it. Dr. Gey and his colleagues went on to develop a test, using HeLa cells, to distinguish between the many polio strains, some of which had no effect on the human body. Until researchers knew which strain-produced, polios crippling effects some of which had no effect on the human body. Until researchers knew which strain produced polios crippling effects, they did not know what they were fighting. Through Henriettas cells, they found their culprit. With this information, researchers in Pittsburgh created a vaccine, and the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis established facilities for mass-producing the HeLa cells. They would use them to test the polio vaccine before its use in humans. During this time, the scientists come up with a way to send cell through the mail without killing them. Due to a laboratory accident involving HeLa cells scientists in Texas were able to see human chromosomes for the first time. Henrietta’s cells have helped us find and many things over the last 50 years. In 1954, thanks to the cells scientists came up with a method that kept an isolated single cell alive long enough for it to replicate and make a perfect copy of them. That is how we discovered gene therapy, in vitro fertilization, and stem cell isolation. In the 1960’s they packed some HeLa cells into a soviet satellite and sent them into space, this discovered that cancer cells grow faster in space. Later NASA listed the HeLa cells were in the first manned US mission in space. By the mid 1960’s they found that if you mixed Hela cells with mouse cells it created the first cross-species helped prove that human papillomavirus causes cancer, and they made a vaccine to help prevent it, this could have saved Henrietta’s life it was available then. A few years later, they inject HIV into the HeLa cells to try to find the key receptor in this virus. Thanks to the HeLa cells, scientists have been able to find cures, vaccines, and help to many types of viruses. hybrid, and that helped with mapping human genes. They also discovered Herceptin, a cancer drug, with the help of the Hela cells.